Technical guidelines for porcine liver allo-transplantation: A review of literature

Majid Esmaeilzadeh, Arash Nickkholgh, Ali Majlesara, Mohammadreza Hafezi, Camelia Garoussi, Koosha Ghazi-Moghaddam, Alireza Faridar, Mohammad Golriz, Hamidreza Fonouni, Arianeb Mehrabi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Experimental animal research has been pivotal in the development of clinical liver transplantation (LTx). Results obtained in these experiments have been applied in clinic and clinical challenges have been scrutinized in animal laboratories. Porcine model is an optimal model in the field of experimental LTx research. Here, we present the various techniques of experimental LTx in the porcine model in detail. Different methods and modifications have been described. The following major steps have been discussed in detail: donor liver preparation, recipient operation including recipient hepatectomy, and reconstruction phase, including the reconstruction of suprahepatic inferior vena cava (SHIVC), portal vein (PV), infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IHIVC), hepatic artery (HA) and bile duct (BD). IHIVC and SHIVC are anastomosed end to end directly or with the use of prosthesis anastomosed side to side. The PV anastomosis is performed end to end between donor and recipient PV, Cuff method or Stump method. Arterialization has been accomplished via carrel patch or donor HA end to end with recipient HA. There are three major methods for reconstruction of BD: end to end or end to side choledochocholedochostomy or choledojejunostomy with Roux-en-Y jejunal loop. Each method has advantages and disadvantages regarding the objectives of the study; the most physiological techniques may be preferred for long-term survival studies, while the faster techniques may be selected for experimentations aiming the direct postoperative phase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-110
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Transplantation
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2012


  • Experimental transplantation
  • Liver transplantation
  • Porcine model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation


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