Purpose of review There has been a recent resurgence of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications after years of steady improvement. This review highlights established and emerging contemporary secondary prevention approaches that lower the risk of atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events among patients with diabetes. Recent findings Secondary prevention therapies modify residual risk targets, including cardiometabolic pathways, lipoproteins, thrombosis, and inflammation. Large-scale clinical trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have demonstrated significant reductions in hospitalization for heart failure. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Recent clinical trials provide evidence supporting the use of nonstatin lipid-lowering therapies, novel antiplatelet and anticoagulant strategies, and antiinflammatory strategies in select cases. Summary Therapeutic approaches targeting multiple distinct pathways have been shown to improve cardiometabolic risk in diabetes. Individual patient characteristics and consideration of residual risk targets may help guide selection of comprehensive secondary prevention approaches.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Residual risk
- Secondary prevention
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine