The increase in cardiovascular disease and its clinical complications occurs despite extensive use of effective drugs and, thus, development of new and complementary therapeutic approaches is urged. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are cholesterol sensors within cells and play a critical role in the modulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Reverse cholesterol transport, bile acid synthesis and intestinal cholesterol absorption are all positively affected by LXR activation. In mice, LXR agonists have demonstrated beneficial effects on atherosclerosis, but also resulted in unfavorable effects on triglyceride metabolism, mainly due to the activation of LXRα in the liver. Activation of LXRβ reduces atherosclerosis and increases HDL cholesterol, without raising plasma triglyceride levels, making it an attractive therapeutic target.
- Reverse cholesterol transport
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