Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially highly disabling, permanent consequence of antidopaminergic agents used to treat psychotic disorders and nonpsychiatric conditions like nausea and gastroparesis. Several pathophysiological models have been proposed, but alterations in dopaminergic signaling pathways are most implicated. Despite its long history and increasing prevalence, there is currently no standard treatment approach or guideline for physicians confronted with patients that have TD. Since this is an iatrogenic disease, prevention is the best strategy. However, dopaminergic antagonists remain the standard of treatment for many psychiatric conditions, and hence various treatment options have been studied to manage TD. Tetrabenazine (TBZ) and several similar medications are promising drugs.
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