Systematic profiling of ale yeast protein dynamics across fermentation and repitching

Riddhiman K. Garge, Renee C. Geck, Joseph O. Armstrong, Barbara Dunn, Daniel R. Boutz, Anna Battenhouse, Mario Leutert, Vy Dang, Pengyao Jiang, Dusan Kwiatkowski, Thorin Peiser, Hoyt McElroy, Edward M. Marcotte, Maitreya J. Dunham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Studying the genetic and molecular characteristics of brewing yeast strains is crucial for understanding their domestication history and adaptations accumulated over time in fermentation environments, and for guiding optimizations to the brewing process itself. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewing yeast) is among the most profiled organisms on the planet, yet the temporal molecular changes that underlie industrial fermentation and beer brewing remain understudied. Here, we characterized the genomic makeup of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale yeast widely used in the production of Hefeweizen beers, and applied shotgun mass spectrometry to systematically measure the proteomic changes throughout 2 fermentation cycles which were separated by 14 rounds of serial repitching. The resulting brewing yeast proteomics resource includes 64,740 protein abundance measurements. We found that this strain possesses typical genetic characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale strains and displayed progressive shifts in molecular processes during fermentation based on protein abundance changes. We observed protein abundance differences between early fermentation batches compared to those separated by 14 rounds of serial repitching. The observed abundance differences occurred mainly in proteins involved in the metabolism of ergosterol and isobutyraldehyde. Our systematic profiling serves as a starting point for deeper characterization of how the yeast proteome changes during commercial fermentations and additionally serves as a resource to guide fermentation protocols, strain handling, and engineering practices in commercial brewing and fermentation environments. Finally, we created a web interface ( to serve as a valuable resource for yeast geneticists, brewers, and biochemists to provide insights into the global trends underlying commercial beer production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberjkad293
JournalG3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • beer
  • brewing yeast
  • fermentation
  • genomics
  • mass spectrometry
  • proteomics
  • systems biology
  • Fungal Proteins/genetics
  • Beer/analysis
  • Proteomics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics
  • Fermentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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