Charles C. Wykoff, Robert L. Avery, Mark R. Barakat, David S. Boyer, David M. Brown, Alexander J. Brucker, Emmett T. Cunningham, Jeffrey S. Heier, Nancy M. Holekamp, Peter K. Kaiser, Arshad M. Khanani, Judy E. Kim, Hakan Demirci, Carl D. Regillo, Glenn C. Yiu, Thomas A. Ciulla

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: To develop professional guidelines for best practices for suprachoroidal space (SCS) injection, an innovative technique for retinal therapeutic delivery, based on current published evidence and clinical experience. Methods: A panel of expert ophthalmologists reviewed current published evidence and clinical experience during a live working group meeting to define points of consensus and key clinical considerations to inform the development of guidelines for in-office SCS injection. Results: Core consensus guidelines for in-office SCS injection were reached and reported by the expert panel. Current clinical evidence and physician experience supported SCS injection as a safe and effective method for delivering retinal and choroidal therapeutics. The panel established consensus on the rationale for SCS injection, including potential benefits relative to other intraocular delivery methods and current best practices in patient preparation, pre- and peri-injection management, SCS-specific injection techniques, and postinjection management and follow-up. Conclusion: These expert panel guidelines may support and promote standardization of SCS injection technique, with the goal of optimizing patient safety and outcomes. Some aspects of the procedure may reasonably be modified based on the clinical setting and physician judgment, as well as additional study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)939-949
Number of pages11
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2024


  • drug delivery
  • guideline
  • intraocular injection
  • retina
  • suprachoroidal administration
  • suprachoroidal injection
  • suprachoroidal space

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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