Structural Valve Deterioration After Self-Expanding Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients at Intermediate or High Risk

Daniel O'Hair, Steven J. Yakubov, Kendra J. Grubb, Jae K. Oh, Saki Ito, G. Michael Deeb, Nicolas M. Van Mieghem, David H. Adams, Tanvir Bajwa, Neal S. Kleiman, Stanley Chetcuti, Lars Søndergaard, Hemal Gada, Mubashir Mumtaz, John Heiser, William M. Merhi, George Petrossian, Newell Robinson, Gilbert H.L. Tang, Joshua D. RovinStephen H. Little, Renuka Jain, Sarah Verdoliva, Tim Hanson, Shuzhen Li, Jeffrey J. Popma, Michael J. Reardon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Importance: The frequency and clinical importance of structural valve deterioration (SVD) in patients undergoing self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or surgery is poorly understood. Objective: To evaluate the 5-year incidence, clinical outcomes, and predictors of hemodynamic SVD in patients undergoing self-expanding TAVI or surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis pooled data from the CoreValve US High Risk Pivotal (n = 615) and SURTAVI (n = 1484) randomized clinical trials (RCTs); it was supplemented by the CoreValve Extreme Risk Pivotal trial (n = 485) and CoreValve Continued Access Study (n = 2178). Patients with severe aortic valve stenosis deemed to be at intermediate or increased risk of 30-day surgical mortality were included. Data were collected from December 2010 to June 2016, and data were analyzed from December 2021 to October 2022. Interventions: Patients were randomized to self-expanding TAVI or surgery in the RCTs or underwent self-expanding TAVI for clinical indications in the nonrandomized studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the incidence of SVD through 5 years (from the RCTs). Factors associated with SVD and its association with clinical outcomes were evaluated for the pooled RCT and non-RCT population. SVD was defined as (1) an increase in mean gradient of 10 mm Hg or greater from discharge or at 30 days to last echocardiography with a final mean gradient of 20 mm Hg or greater or (2) new-onset moderate or severe intraprosthetic aortic regurgitation or an increase of 1 grade or more. Results: Of 4762 included patients, 2605 (54.7%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 82.1 (7.4) years. A total of 2099 RCT patients, including 1128 who received TAVI and 971 who received surgery, and 2663 non-RCT patients who received TAVI were included. The cumulative incidence of SVD treating death as a competing risk was lower in patients undergoing TAVI than surgery (TAVI, 2.20%; surgery, 4.38%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27-0.78; P =.004). This lower risk was most pronounced in patients with smaller annuli (23 mm diameter or smaller; TAVI, 1.32%; surgery, 5.84%; HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06-0.73; P =.02). SVD was associated with increased 5-year all-cause mortality (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.46-2.82; P <.001), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.20-2.90; P =.006), and valve disease or worsening heart failure hospitalizations (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.23-3.84; P =.008). Predictors of SVD were developed from multivariate analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found a lower rate of SVD in patients undergoing self-expanding TAVI vs surgery at 5 years. Doppler echocardiography was a valuable tool to detect SVD, which was associated with worse clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-119
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA Cardiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 8 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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