Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Lumbar-Sacral Spinal Cord

Robert G. Grossman, Xiufeng Tang, Philip J. Horner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Lumbar-Sacral Spinal Cord has been created to provide an anatomical basis for radiologic and ultrasonic imaging and electrophysiological examination, which are used to target the placement of lumbar-sacral epidural stimulating electrodes and cellular transplantation in order to restore movement in individuals with sustained spinal cord injury or a degenerative disorder of the spinal cord. Through the availability of an atlas that exhibits axial images of the cytoarchitecture of each cord segment with a stereotaxic millimeter grid of dorsal-ventral depth from the midline dorsal surface of the cord and right–left distances from the midline of the cord, neuromodulation, and cellular therapy would undoubtedly be made not only more precise but also safer for patients. Methods: The atlas is based upon dimension measurements and subsequent serial sectioning, staining and high-resolution digital imaging of the lumbar–sacral enlargement of 20 adult human spinal cords. Results: Nissl stained cross-sections from cord segments L1-S3 illustrate the cytoarchitecture and stereotactic coordinates. Conclusions: The atlas provides an anatomical basis for radiologic and physiologic confirmation of target localization in the lumbar-sacral spinal cord.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e460-e468
JournalWorld neurosurgery
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Atlas
  • Human
  • Lumbar
  • Sacral
  • Spinal cord
  • Stereotaxis
  • Humans
  • Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging
  • Sacrococcygeal Region
  • Lumbosacral Region
  • Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Adult
  • Sacrum/diagnostic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery


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