Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for ≥T1b Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Report From the International Radiosurgery Oncology Consortium for Kidney (IROCK)

Shankar Siva, Rohann J.M. Correa, Andrew Warner, Michael Staehler, Rodney J. Ellis, Lee Ponsky, Irving D. Kaplan, Anand Mahadevan, William Chu, Senthilkumar Gandhidasan, Anand Swaminath, Hiroshi Onishi, Bin S. Teh, Simon S. Lo, Alexander Muacevic, Alexander V. Louie

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46 Scopus citations


Purpose: Patients with larger (T1b, >4 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) not suitable for surgery have few treatment options because thermal ablation is less effective in this setting. We hypothesize that SABR represents an effective, safe, and nephron-sparing alternative for large RCC. Methods and Materials: Individual patient data from 9 institutions in Germany, Australia, USA, Canada, and Japan were pooled. Patients with T1a tumors, M1 disease, and/or upper tract urothelial carcinoma were excluded. Demographics, treatment, oncologic, and renal function outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics. Kaplan–Meier estimates and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression were generated for oncologic outcomes. Results: Ninety-five patients were included. Median follow-up was 2.7 years. Median age was 76 years, median tumor diameter was 4.9 cm, and 81.1% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1 (or Karnofsky performance status ≥70%). In patients for whom operability details were reported, 77.6% were defined as inoperable as determined by the referring urologist. Mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 57.2 mL/min (mild-to-moderate dysfunction), with 30% of the cohort having moderate-to-severe dysfunction (eGFR <45mL/min). After SABR, eGFR decreased by 7.9 mL/min. Three patients (3.2%) required dialysis. Thirty-eight patients (40%) had a grade 1 to 2 toxicity. No grade 3 to 5 toxicities were reported. Cancer-specific survival, overall survival, and progression-free survival were 96.1%, 83.7%, and 81.0% at 2 years and 91.4%, 69.2%, 64.9% at 4 years, respectively. Local, distant, and any failure at 4 years were 2.9%, 11.1%, and 12.1% (cumulative incidence function with death as competing event). On multivariable analysis, increasing tumor size was associated with inferior cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio per 1 cm increase: 1.30; P <.001). Conclusions: SABR for larger RCC in this older, largely medically inoperable cohort, demonstrated efficacy and tolerability and had modest impact on renal function. SABR appears to be a viable treatment option in this patient population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)941-949
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 15 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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