Long-duration spaceflight is associated with neurologic and ophthalmic clinical and imaging findings in astronauts termed spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS). These microgravity-induced findings have been well documented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and are clearly a potential risk for future human space exploration. The underlying pathogenesis of SANS is not well understood, although multiple hypotheses have emerged. Terrestrial analogues and potential countermeasures have also been studied to further understand and potentially mitigate SANS. In this manuscript, we review the current understanding of SANS, discuss the prevailing hypotheses for pathogenesis, and describe current developments in terrestrial analogues and potential countermeasures for SANS.
- Weightlessness/adverse effects
- Intracranial Pressure/physiology
- Space Flight
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Sensory Systems