Purpose of reviewSeveral decades of long duration space flight missions by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has revealed an interesting and unique constellation of neuro-ophthalmic findings now called spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS). The unique space environment of microgravity produces novel physiological changes and derangements that present a challenge to astronauts in current and future long duration space missions. Although the precise mechanism of SANS is not fully understood, in this review, we examine recent developments that may to help explain possible causes and potential countermeasures.Recent findingsThe cause of SANS is still largely unknown. A growing body of evidence implicates multiple factors that contribute to the development of SANS including cephalad fluid shifts, increased intracranial pressure, venous/lymphatic stasis, inflammation, metabolism, axoplasmic stasis and radiation exposure.SummaryThe pathologic mechanism behind SANS may be multifactorial and may be amenable to different countermeasures for prevention and management of SANS.
- idiopathic intracranial hypertension
- intracranial pressure
- optic disc edema
- spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology