Space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS)

Andrew G. Lee, Thomas H. Mader, C. Robert Gibson, Tyson J. Brunstetter, William J. Tarver

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

111 Scopus citations


Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i.e., cotton wool spots). NASA and collaborating researchers continue to study SANS in preparation for future manned missions to space, including continued trips to the ISS, a return to the moon, or perhaps new voyages to the asteroid belt, or the planet, Mars.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1164-1167
Number of pages4
JournalEye (Basingstoke)
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems


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