Soluble factors in COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced myocarditis causes cardiomyoblast hypertrophy and cell injury: a case report

Jose Gildardo Paredes-Vazquez, Nestor Rubio-Infante, Hector Lopez-de la Garza, Marion E.G. Brunck, Jaime Alberto Guajardo-Lozano, Martin R. Ramos, Eduardo Vazquez-Garza, Guillermo Torre-Amione, Gerardo Garcia-Rivas, Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Inflammation affecting the heart and surrounding tissues is a clinical condition recently reported following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Assessing trends of these events related to immunization will improve vaccine safety surveillance and best practices for forthcoming vaccine campaigns. However, the causality is unknown, and the mechanisms associated with cardiac myocarditis are not understood. Case presentation: After the first dose, we reported an mRNA vaccine-induced perimyocarditis in a young patient with a history of recurrent myocardial inflammation episodes and progressive loss of cardiac performance. We tested this possible inflammatory cytokine-mediated cardiotoxicity after vaccination in the acute phase (ten days), and we found a significant elevation of MCP-1, IL-18, and IL-8 inflammatory mediators. Still, these cytokines decreased considerably at the recovery phase (42 days later). We used the cardiomyoblasts cell line to test the effect of serum on cell viability, observing that serum from the acute phase reduced the cell viability to 75%. We did not detect this toxicity in cells when we tested serum from the patient in the recovery phase. We also tested serum-induced hypertrophy, a phenomenon in myocarditis and heart failure. We found that acute phase-serum has hypertrophy effects, increasing 25% of the treated cardiac cells’ surface and significantly increasing B-type natriuretic peptide. However, we did not observe the hypertrophic effect in the recovery phase or sera from healthy controls. Conclusion: Our results opened the possibility of the inflammatory cytokines or serum soluble mediators as key factors for vaccine-associated myocarditis. In this regard, identifying anti-inflammatory molecules that reduce inflammatory cytokines could help avoid vaccine-induced myocardial inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number203
JournalVirology Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • COVID-19
  • COVID-19 mRNA vaccine
  • Inflammation
  • Vaccine-induced myocarditis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Soluble factors in COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced myocarditis causes cardiomyoblast hypertrophy and cell injury: a case report'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this