The Siponimod (Mayzent) is a newly developed drug, similar to Fingolimod (FTY720) but with fewer side effects, approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The therapeutic effect of siponimod and FTY720 in MS relies on their inhibitory effect on the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling. These drugs bind to the S1P receptors and block the CCL2 chemokine pathway that is responsible for the exit of the immune cells from the lymphoid organs, and circulation, thus preventing immune cell-dependent injury to the nervous system. We recently found that FTY720 beside its effect on the S1P pathway also blocks the RhoA pathway, which is involved in the actin cytoskeleton-related function of macrophages, such as expression/recycling of fractalkine (CX3CL1) receptors (CX3CR1), which direct macrophages to the transplanted organs during the development of the long-term (chronic) rejection. Here we tested the effects of siponimod on the RhoA pathway and the expression of the S1P1 and CX3CR1 receptors in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that siponimod downregulates the expression of RhoA protein and decreases the cell surface expression of S1P1 and CX3CR1 receptors. This newly discovered crosstalk between S1P and RhoA/CX3CR1 pathways may help in the development of novel anti-chronic rejection therapies in clinical transplantation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy