Single Institutional Experience with Single Stage Sacral Neuromodulation: Cost Savings and Outcomes in a Contemporary Case Series

Wai Lee, Daniel Artenstein, Christopher F. Tenggardjaja, Una J. Lee, Alvaro Lucioni, Polina Reyblat, Kathleen C. Kobashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose:Sacral neuromodulation is traditionally performed in 2 stages. Studies have projected that 1-stage sacral neuromodulation is cost-effective if the conversion rate is 61.3% or greater. To our knowledge we present the first case series in the literature to evaluate the cost of 1-stage sacral neuromodulation. The objective of our study was to evaluate outcomes and analyze cost using our institutional experience with 1-stage sacral neuromodulation.Materials and Methods:A total of 15 consecutive 1-stage sacral neuromodulation procedures were performed at a self-insured, integrated health care institution. Cost data were determined using 2019 Medicare reimbursement rates for CPT codes 64581, 64585, 64590 and 64595. Median operative time was derived from actual institutional data.Results:One-stage sacral neuromodulation implantation was performed in 15 patients. Median followup was 14.6 months (IQR 6.9-22.5). Of the 15 cases 14 (93.3%) were successful, defined as a 50% or greater improvement from baseline. Total reimbursement for the 15 patients who underwent 1-stage implantation was $329,430. If these patients had undergone traditional 2-stage implantation with equivalent outcomes, the overall reimbursement was determined to be $414,796. Single-stage sacral neuromodulation implantation provided a calculated total cost savings of $85,366 (p <0.01). Moreover, a projected 233 minutes in operative time was saved by performing 1-stage sacral neuromodulation (p <0.01).Conclusions:This study demonstrates the potential health care savings of a 1-stage sacral neuromodulation procedure. Moreover, 1-stage sacral neuromodulation may have other added benefits, such as reduced infection rates, patient satisfaction and other indirect cost savings, including reduced time off from work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)604-609
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020


  • cost savings
  • implantable neurostimulators
  • prosthesis implantation
  • transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation
  • urinary bladder, overactive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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