Sex-Based Clinicopathologic and Survival Differences Among Patients with Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

Jacques A. Greenberg, Nikolay A. Ivanov, Caitlin E. Egan, Yeon Joo Lee, Rasa Zarnegar, Thomas J. Fahey, Brendan M. Finnerty, Irene M. Min

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: Sex-based differences in survival have emerged among patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Mechanisms driving these differences remain poorly understood. We aimed to further characterize sex-based clinicopathologic and survival differences among patients with PNETs and correlate divergent mutational signatures in these patients. Methods: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for PNET patients diagnosed 2004–2017 who underwent surgery. Clinicopathologic features were analyzed by sex. The overall survival (OS) of men and women by disease stage was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Differences in PNET mutational signatures were analyzed by querying the American Association for Cancer Research Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information (AACR-GENIE) Cohort v11.0-public. Frequencies of mutational signatures were compared by Fischer’s exact (FE) test, adjusting for multiple testing via the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Results: About 15,202 patients met inclusion criteria from the NCDB; 51.9% were men and 48.1% were women. Men more frequently had tumors > 2 cm than women and more commonly had poorly or undifferentiated tumors. Despite this, lymph node positivity and distant metastases were similar. Differences in OS were only seen among those with early stage rather than stage 3 or 4 disease. MEN1 and DAXX mutations were more frequent among men with PNETs, whereas TP53 mutations were more frequent among women when assessed by FE test. However, neither of these mutational differences maintained statistical significance when adjusted for multiple testing. Conclusion: Compared to women, men have larger tumors but similar rates of distant metastases at time of surgery. OS differences appear to be driven by patients with early-stage disease without clearly identifiable differences in mutational signatures between the sexes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2321-2329
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Neuroendocrine tumor
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Gastroenterology


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