Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial, multisystem pro-inflammatory neuromuscular disorder. Activation of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), and its ligands, programmed cell death-ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1/L2), leads to immune suppression. Serum soluble forms of these proteins, sPD-1/sPD-L1/sPD-L2, inhibit this suppression and promote pro-inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to determine if sPD-1, sPD-L1, and sPD-L2 were increased in sera of patients with ALS. sPD-1 and sPD-L2 were elevated in sera of patients and accurately reflected patients’ disease burdens. Increased sera levels of programmed cell death proteins reinforce the concept that peripheral pro-inflammatory responses contribute to systemic inflammation in patients with ALS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100209
JournalBrain, behavior, & immunity - health
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Cancer
  • Immune regulatory checkpoint pathways
  • Inflammation
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuromuscular disease
  • Program cell death proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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