Screening for chronic kidney disease complications in US adults: Racial implications of a single GFR threshold

Hassan N. Ibrahim, Changchun Wang, Areef Ishani, Allan J. Collins, Robert N. Foley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Background and objectives: An ideal and effective screening tool should perform equally across ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether the widely advocated creatinine-based estimated GFR (eGFR) threshold of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 identifies the typical metabolic abnormalities related to chronic kidney disease equally well in minority and nonminority adults. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This objective was addressed using data for 8918 minority and nonminority adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 through 2006, which used stratified, multistage, probability sampling methods to assemble a nationwide probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Metabolic abnormalities including BP, potassium, hemoglobin, bicarbonate, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were defined by fifth or 95th percentile values. Results: Among participants with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, black individuals were more likely than white individuals to have low hemoglobin (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.94 to 7.28), elevated uric acid (aOR 2.15; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.68), and elevated parathyroid hormone (aOR 3.93; 95% CI 2.33 to 6.66). Conclusions: Metabolic consequences of reduced eGFR are more common in black individuals and seem to be present at levels well above 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; thus, black individuals should be screened for the metabolic complications of chronic kidney at higher GFR levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1792-1799
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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