Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases involving diabetes, stroke, cancer, or obesity. It is expressed in diverse cell types, including vessels, immune and glial cells, and neurons. PPARγ plays crucial roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, lipid metabolism, or glucose homeostasis. PPARγ ligands also exert effects on attenuating degenerative processes in the brain, as well as in peripheral systems, and it has been associated with the control of anti-inflammatory mechanisms, oxidative stress, neuronal death, neurogenesis, differentiation, and angiogenesis. This review will highlight key advances in the understanding of the PPARγ-related mechanisms responsible for neuroprotection after brain injuries, both ischemia and traumatic brain injury, and it will also cover the natural and synthetic agonist for PPARγ, angiotensin receptor blockers, and PPARγ antagonists, used in experimental and clinical research. A better understanding of the pleiotropic mechanisms and applications of these drugs to improve the recovery and to repair the acute and chronic induced neuroinflammation after brain injuries will pave the way for more effective therapeutic strategies after brain deficits.
- Angiotensin receptor blockers
- Brain injury
- PPAR gamma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology