Role of apolipoprotein E and B gene variation in determining response of lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein levels to increased dietary cholesterol

E. Boerwinkle, S. A. Brown, K. Rohrbach, A. M. Gotto, W. Patsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

72 Scopus citations

Abstract

A large segment of the population is modifying its dietary cholesterol intake to achieve a healthier life-style. However, all individuals do not respond equally. We have investigated the effects that that two physiologically important polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein (apo) E and B genes have on the responses of plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein levels to a high-cholesterol diet. Over a 6-wk period, individuals were prescribed two diets, one consisting of 300 mg dietary cholesterol/d for 3 wk and one consisting of 1,700 mg dietary cholesterol/d for 3 wk. Total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apo B levels were significantly increased on the high-cholesterol diet. Average total cholesterol (numbers in parentheses are SDs) went from 167.6 (23.4) mg/dl on the low-cholesterol diet to 190.8 (36.2) mg/dl on the high-cholesterol diet; LDL-C went from 99.9 (24.8) mg/dl to 119.2 (33.4) mg/dl, and apo B went from 74.9 (24.5) mg/dl to 86.8 (29.5) mg/dl. In 71 individuals, the frequencies of the apo ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles were .09, .84, and .07, respectively. The frequency of the longer, apo B signal peptide allele (5′βSP27) was .68. Apo ε2/3 individuals had significantly lower LDL-C levels than did ε3/3 homozygotes, on both the low-cholesterol diet (LDL-C lower by 21 mg/dl) and the high-cholesterol diet (LDL-C lower by 27 mg/dl). Average triglyceride levels were significantly different among apo B signal peptide genotypes, with the 5′βSP27/37 homozygotes having the lowest levels (70 mg/dl). When individuals were switched from the low-cholesterol diet to the high-cholesterol diet, in no case were the average responses in lipid levels significantly different among apo E or B genotypes. Therefore, these gene loci do not have a major effect on the response of lipid levels to increased dietary cholesterol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1145-1154
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Volume49
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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