Purpose: The 21-gene RT-PCR recurrence score (RS) is performed in patients with hormone receptor–positive (ER+, PR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–negative, N0 breast cancer to determine which patients will likely benefit from chemotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the RS can predict for patients likely to benefit from radiation therapy (RT) after BCS. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Database was queried (2004-2017) for female patients with pT1N0 ER+ PR+ HER2-negative breast cancer treated with BCS who had an available RS. Patients were stratified based on their RS (low risk [LR], 1-10; intermediate risk [IR], 11-25; high risk [HR], 26-100). For each RS cohort, propensity score matching was conducted to create 1:1 matched cohorts of patients who received RT and patients who did not. Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated overall survival (OS). Univariable and multivariable (MVA) Cox proportional hazard analysis identified clinical and treatment factors prognostic for OS. Results: A total of 79,040 patients met the selection criteria: 18,823 in the LR cohort, 52,341 in the IR cohort, and 7876 in the HR cohort. A total of 92% of patients received RT: 91% in the LR cohort, 93% in the IR cohort, and 92% in the HR cohort. After propensity score matching, the 5-year OS in the LR cohort was 95% for those who received RT and 93% for those who did not (P = .184). In the IR cohort, the 5-year OS was 95% for those who received RT and 93% for those who did not (P = .001). In the HR cohort, the 5-year OS was 95% for those who received RT and 84% for those who did not (P < .001). MVA demonstrated that RT was a positive prognostic factor for OS in both the IR cohort (P = .001) and HR cohort (P < .001). On MVA in the LR cohort, RT (P = .186) was not predictive of improved OS. Conclusions: An OS benefit was observed with the use of RT in patients with IR or HR RS but not in patients with LR RS. Future prospective evaluation is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging