Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) activate the prosurvival nuclear factor-≲καππα∀B (NF- ≲καππα∀B) pathway by hyperacetylating RelA/p65, whereas the chemopreventive agent resveratrol inhibits NF-≲καππα∀B by activating the class III histone deacetylase Sirt1. Interactions between resveratrol and pan-HDACIs (vorinostat and panobinostat) were examined in human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells. Pharmacologically achievable resveratrol concentrations (25-50 μM) synergistically potentiated HDACI lethality in AML cell lines and primary AML blasts. Resveratrol antagonized RelA acetylation and NF- ≲καππα∀B activation in HDACI-treated cells. However, short hairpin RNA Sirt1 knockdown failed to modify HDACI sensitivity, which suggests that factors other than or in addition to Sirt1 activation contribute to resveratrol/HDACI interactions. These interactions were associated with death receptor 5 (DR5) up-regulation and caspase-8 activation, whereas cells expressing dominant-negative caspase-8 were substantially protected from resveratrol/HDACI treatment, which suggests a significant functional role for the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in lethality. Exposure to resveratrol with HDACI induced sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was accompanied by increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks, as reflected in γH2A.X and comet assays. The free radical scavenger Mn(III)tetrakis(4- benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride blocked ROS generation, DR5 upregulation, caspase-8 activation, DNA damage, and apoptosis, which indicates a primary role for oxidative injury in lethality. Analyses of cell-cycle progression and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation through flow cytometry revealed that resveratrol induced S-phase accumulation; this effect was abrogated by HDACI coadministration, which suggests that cells undergoing DNA synthesis may be particularly vulnerable to HDACI lethality. Collectively, these findings indicate that resveratrol interacts synergistically with HDACIs in AML cells through multiple ROS-dependent actions, including death receptor up-regulation, extrinsic apoptotic pathway activation, and DNA damage induction. They also raise the possibility that S-phase cells may be particularly susceptible to these actions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine