Residency Surgical BPH Training Paradigms from MIST to HOLEP

Thaiphi Luu, Ricardo R. Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common medical condition of older men that often requires medical or surgical therapy. Surgical options for BPH have grown exponentially over the last two decades. The numerous options and/or lack of access to them can make it challenging for new trainees to gain proficiency. We examine the literature for available BPH surgical simulators, learning curves, and training pathways. Recent Findings: Each BPH surgical therapy has a learning curve which must be overcome. There is an abundance of TURP simulators which have shown face, content, and construct validity in the literature. Similarly, laser therapies have validated simulators. Newer technologies do have available simulators, but they have not been validated. There are strategies to improve learning and outcomes, such as having a structured training program. Summary: Simulators are available for BPH surgical procedures and some have been implemented in urology residencies. It is likely that such simulation may make urologists more facile on their learning curves for newer technologies. Further studies are needed. Future directions may include integration of simulator technology into training pathways that include surgical observation and proctorship.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Urology Reports
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • BPH
  • Learning curves
  • Simulators
  • Training program
  • VR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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