A patient suffering from polycystic kidney disease was returned to chronic maintenance hemodialysis because of chronic rejection of a kidney transplant. One of his native kidneys was excised because of persistent hematuria, enlargement and unusual angiographic findings. Renal cell carcinoma was found in the nephrectomy specimen. The occurrence of renal cell carcinoma in polycystic kidneys is reviewed and the implications for transplantation are discussed. We conclude that pretransplantation angiograms are indicated in transplant recipients with polycystic kidney disease.
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