OBJECTIVES: This study examined plasma levels of certain matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) species before and after alcohol-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases contribute to tissue remodeling, and endogenous control of MMP activity is achieved by the concordant release and binding of TIMPs. Animal models of MI have demonstrated a role for MMP activation in myocardial remodeling. However, the temporal relationship of MMP and TIMP release following a controlled myocardial injury in humans remains unknown. METHODS: Plasma levels for the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, and for the coliagenases MMP-8 and MMP-13, as well as TIMP-1 profiles were examined (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) at baseline and serially up to 60 h following alcohol injection into the septal perforator artery in order to induce an MI in 51 patients with HOCM (age 55 ± 2 years). RESULTS: Plasma creatine kinase (MB isoform), indicating myocardial injury, increased 2,150% 18 h post-MI (p < 0.05). Plasma MMP-9 increased by over 400% and MMP-8 by over 100% from baseline values by 12 h post-MI (p < 0.05 vs. baseline). A similar temporal profile was not observed for MMP-2 and MMP-13. In addition, a concomitant increase in plasma TIMP-1 levels did not occur post-MI. As a result, MMP/TIMP stoichiometry (MMP-9/ TIMP-1 ratio) increased significantly post-MI, suggestive of reduced TIMP-1 mediated MMP-9 inhibition, which would potentially enhance extracellular myocardial remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: These unique results demonstrated that induction of a controlled myocardial injury in humans, specifically through alcohol-induced MI, caused species- and time-dependent perturbations of MMP/TIMP stoichiometry that would facilitate myocardial remodeling in the early post-MI setting.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine