Regulatory and Economic Considerations of Retinal Drugs

Ankoor R Shah, George A Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The advent of anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion and diabetes mellitus has prevented blindness in tens of thousands of people. However, the costs of these drugs are without precedent in ophthalmic drug therapeutics. An analysis of the financial implications of retinal drugs and the impact of the Food and Drug Administration on treatment of retinal disease must include not only an evaluation of the direct costs of the drugs and the costs associated with their administration, but also the cost savings which accrue from their clinical benefit. This chapter will discuss the financial and regulatory issues associated with retinal drugs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)376-80
Number of pages5
JournalDigital journal of ophthalmology : DJO
StatePublished - 2016


  • Cost Savings
  • Cost of Illness
  • Drug Costs
  • Drug and Narcotic Control
  • Economics, Pharmaceutical
  • Health Care Costs
  • Humans
  • Legislation, Drug
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Retinal Diseases
  • United States
  • United States Food and Drug Administration
  • Journal Article
  • Review


Dive into the research topics of 'Regulatory and Economic Considerations of Retinal Drugs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this