Regional Replacement and Diffuse Interstitial Fibrosis in Aortic Regurgitation: Prognostic Implications From Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

Alpana Senapati, Maan Malahfji, Dany Debs, Eric Y. Yang, Duc T. Nguyen, Edward A. Graviss, Dipan J. Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study used cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess left ventricular (LV) remodeling in chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) to identify both forms of myocardial fibrosis and examine its association with clinical outcomes. Background: Chronic AR leads to LV remodeling, which is associated with 2 forms of myocardial fibrosis: regional replacement fibrosis that is directly imaged by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR; and diffuse interstitial fibrosis, which can be inferred by T1 mapping techniques. Methods: Patients with chronic AR who were undergoing contrast CMR with T1 mapping for valve assessment from 2011 to 2018 were enrolled. Patients with a confounding etiology of myocardial fibrosis were excluded. In addition to quantification of AR severity and LV volumetrics, LGE and T1 mapping pre- and post-contrast were performed to measure extracellular volume (ECV) and indexed ECV (iECV). Patients were followed up longitudinally to assess for the composite event of death and the need for aortic valve replacement. Results: A total of 177 patients with isolated chronic AR were included (66% males, median age 58 years [IQR: 47.0-68.0 years]) with a median follow up of 2.5 years (IQR: 1.07-3.56 years). The iECV significantly increased with AR severity (P < 0.001), whereas ECV and replacement fibrosis did not (P = NS). On multivariate analysis, iECV remained associated with the composite event (P = 0.01). On Kaplan-Meier analysis stratified by AR regurgitant fraction (RF) and iECV, patients with AR RF severity ≥30% and iECV ≥24 mL/m2 demonstrated the highest event rate. Conclusions: Among CMR biomarkers of fibrosis, iECV was more closely associated than replacement fibrosis or ECV with survival free of aortic valve replacement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2170-2182
Number of pages13
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • aortic regurgitation
  • cardiac magnetic resonance
  • diffuse interstitial fibrosis
  • extracellular volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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