Recent updates on grading and classification of neuroendocrine tumors

Joo Young Kim, Seung Mo Hong, Jae Y. Ro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

137 Scopus citations


Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are originating from neuroendocrine cells in diffuse endocrine systems. NETs are diagnosed by characteristic histologic features and immunoprofiles. Recent 2010 WHO classification for gastroenteropancreatic NETs introduced grading system based on mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferation index. Gastroenteropancreatic NETs are classified as NET grade 1, NET grade 2, and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET grade 3). However, the carcinoid is still used in classification of NETs of the lung and uterine cervix. Some issues with grading system such as methodologies for evaluation of Ki-67 index and subclassification of neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET grade 3) are arising. The importance of Ki-67 labeling index is emerging in differential diagnosis of lung carcinoids. In this review, we focus on recent grading and classification of NETs and related issues in various organs, including gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, and female reproductive organs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-16
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of Diagnostic Pathology
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017


  • Carcinoid
  • Classification
  • Grade
  • Neuroendocrine tumors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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