Real-time spatial compound imaging improves reproducibility in the evaluation of atherosclerotic carotid plaques

S. C. Kofoed, M. L M Grønholdt, J. E. Wilhjelm, J. Bismuth, H. Sillesen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Compound imaging has the ability of reducing speckle and clutter artifacts demonstrated in in vitro studies compared to conventional, single-angle imaging. We investigated intra- and interobserver agreement of 38 outlines of carotid artery plaque images acquired by these techniques, by measuring the overlapping area after repeated outlines. In general, both techniques showed good agreement. When considering the images with poorest overlap, compound imaging had a significant advantage over conventional imaging regarding both intra- and interobserver agreement. The interobserver variation for the overlapping area after two outlines was 20% for conventional technique and 10% for compound. The interobserver variation of the gray scale median value (GSM) for conventional technique ranged from -32 to +20 and from -6 to +6 for compound. Likewise, the coefficient of repeatability for the GSM value was 13 for conventional imaging and three for compound imaging, and interobserver variation for the GSM value for the overlapping area was 34% and 9% for conventional and compound technique. In conclusion, compound imaging improves intra- and interobserver agreement and reduces interobserver variation in the GSM value in a clinical setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1311-1317
Number of pages7
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2001


  • Carotid artery
  • Compound imaging
  • Plaque
  • Reproducibility
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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