Objective: To report 1-year safety and efficacy outcomes after either Aquablation or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Methods: This double-blinded, multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial assigned 181 patients with BPH-related moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms to either electrocautery-based prostate resection (TURP) or Aquablation. Efficacy endpoints included reduction in International Prostate Symptom Score and improvement in uroflow parameters. The primary safety endpoint was the occurrence of Clavien-Dindo persistent grade 1 or grade 2 or higher complications. Results: BPH symptom score improvements were similar across groups with 12-month reduction of 15.1 points after TURP or Aquablation. In both groups, mean maximum urinary flow rates increased markedly postoperatively, with mean improvements of 10.3 cc/s for Aquablation versus 10.6 cc/s for TURP (P =.8632). At 1 year, Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was reduced significantly (P <.01) in both groups by 1 point; the reduction was similar across groups (P =.9125). Surgical retreatment for BPH rates for TURP were 1.5% and Aquablation 2.6% within 1 year from the study procedure (P = not significant (NS)). The rate of late complications was low, with no procedure-related adverse events after month 6. Conclusion: The 1-year outcomes after TURP and Aquablation were similar and the rate of late procedure-related complications was low. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02505919).
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