Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Racial/ethnic differences in GDM prevalence have been described, but disparities by nativity and duration of US residence are not well studied. Methods: We analyzed data from 6088 women (mean age: 27.5 years [standard deviation: 6.3 years]) from the Boston Birth Cohort who self-identified as non-Hispanic Black (NHB; n = 2697), Hispanic (n = 2395), or non-Hispanic White (NHW; n = 996). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the cross-sectional association of nativity and duration of US residence (< 10 vs ≥ 10 years) with GDM within each race/ethnicity group. Results: Foreign-born NHB, NHW, and Hispanic women with a duration of US residence of < 10 years had a lower prevalence of CVD risk factors than those with US residence of ≥ 10 years, respectively, as follows: smoking (NHB: 1.7% vs 3.1%; NHW: 5.7% vs 8.1%; Hispanic: 0.4% vs 2.6%); obesity (NHB: 17.1% vs 23.4%; NHW: 3.8% vs 15.6%; Hispanic: 10.9% vs 22.7%); and severe stress (NHB: 8.7% vs 11.9%; NHW: 5.7% vs 28.1%; Hispanic: 3.8% vs 7.3%). In analyses adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and CVD risk factors, foreign-born NHB women with a duration of US residence of < 10 years had higher odds of having GDM (adjusted odds ratio: 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.99-2.60), compared with their US-born counterparts, whereas foreign-born Hispanic women with a duration of US residence of < 10 years had lower odds of having GDM (adjusted odds ratio: 0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.91). The odds of having GDM in Hispanic and NHB women with a duration of US residence of ≥ 10 years were not significantly different from those of their US-born counterparts. Conclusions: The “healthy immigrant effect” and its waning with longer duration of US residence apply to the prevalence of GDM among Hispanic women but not NHB women. Further research on the intersectionality of race and nativity-based disparities is needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine