Racial, differences in psychotic symptoms among combat veterans with PTSD

B. Christopher Frueh, Mark B. Hamner, Jeffrey A. Bernat, Samuel M. Turner, Terence M. Keane, George W. Arana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


We tested the hypothesis that race may influence clinical presentation and symptomatology in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). African-American and Caucasian veterans were administered the Psychotic Screen Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and other psychometric measures at a Veterans Affairs outpatient PTSD clinic. Subjects were consecutive referrals who were not matched for level of combat trauma or preexisting trauma; however, there were no group differences in other relevant demographic or diagnostic variables. Significant racial differences, with modest effect sizes, were found on clinician ratings of psychotic symptoms, MMPI-2 scale 6 ("paranoia"), and a measure of dissociation. No significant differences were found for the MMPI-2 scale 8 ("schizophrenia"), or on measures that might suggest comorbid depression or anxiety. African-Americans with PTSD endorsed more items suggesting positive symptoms of psychosis, without higher rates of primary psychosis, depression, or anxiety than Caucasians.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-161
Number of pages5
JournalDepression and Anxiety
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002


  • Combat
  • PTSD
  • Psychosis
  • Racial differences
  • Veterans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


Dive into the research topics of 'Racial, differences in psychotic symptoms among combat veterans with PTSD'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this