CONTEXT: Income and health insurance are important social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may explain much racial/ethnic variation in CVD burden. However, racial/ethnic disparities in cumulative cardiometabolic (CMB) risk profile by insurance type and income level have not been studied on a national scale. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that racial/ethnic minorities experience greater CMB burden at each income level and insurance type than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). SETTING: This study used nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). DESIGN: Observational (cross-sectional). PARTICIPANTS: In total, 134661 (weighted N = 197780611) adults, 18 years or older, from the 2013-2017 NHIS. PRIMARY OUTCOME: CMB risk profile. INTERVENTION/ANALYSIS: Age-adjusted prevalence of optimal, average, and poor CMB risk profile-defined respectively as self-report of 0, 1-2, and 3 or more risk factors of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or hypercholesterolemia-was examined for NHW, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB), and Hispanics. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were used to test the association between race and ethnicity and CMB profile overall and separately by household income level and insurance type. RESULTS: Overall, 15% of NHB and 11% of Hispanics experienced poor CMB risk profile, compared with 9% for NHW. In fully adjusted models, NHB and Hispanics, respectively had nearly 25%-90% and 10%-30% increased odds of poor CMB profile across insurance types and 45%-60% and 15%-30% increased odds of poor CMB profile across income levels, relative to NHW. The observed disparities were widest for the Medicare group (NHB: OR = 1.90; Hispanics: OR = 1.31) and highest-income level (NHB: OR = 1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic minorities experience poor CMB profile at each level of income and insurance. These findings point to the need for greater investigation of unmeasured determinants of minority cardiovascular (CV) health, including structural racism and implicit bias in CV care.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Policy
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health