Quantifying Mitral Regurgitation: Added Value of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Current three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic technology, including live 3D transesophageal echocardiography and single-beat 3D color Doppler imaging, are providing valuable new insight into the mechanism and quantification of mitral valve dysfunction. In this review we discuss important applications of 3D volumetric leaflet imaging with emphasis on the distinction between organic and functional mitral regurgitation. We also discuss the added benefit of current and emerging 3D color Doppler methods for the quantification of mitral regurgitation severity. The limitations of the 2D proximal isovelocity surface area method are discussed, along with potential solutions provided by 3D color Doppler imaging methods that do not require assumptions about the converging flow geometry. Methods to directly measure the vena contracta area of a regurgitant jet are presented along with recent validation studies comparing this method to a reference standard of cardiac MRI. In brief, we review the established and emerging applications of 3D color Doppler techniques for the quantification of mitral regurgitation severity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-369
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Cardiovascular Imaging Reports
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • 3D
  • 3D color Doppler
  • Added value of three-dimensional echocardiography
  • Echocardiography
  • Flow quantification
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • PISA
  • Quantifying mitral regurgitation
  • Quantifying MR with 3D echo
  • Vena contracta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Histology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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