Protein-Corona-by-Design in 2D: A Reliable Platform to Decode Bio–Nano Interactions for the Next-Generation Quality-by-Design Nanomedicines

Kuo Ching Mei, Artur Ghazaryan, Er Zhen Teoh, Huw D. Summers, Yueting Li, Belén Ballesteros, Justyna Piasecka, Adam Walters, Robert C. Hider, Volker Mailänder, Khuloud T. Al-Jamal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hard corona (HC) protein, i.e., the environmental proteins of the biological medium that are bound to a nanosurface, is known to affect the biological fate of a nanomedicine. Due to the size, curvature, and specific surface area (SSA) 3-factor interactions inherited in the traditional 3D nanoparticle, HC-dependent bio–nano interactions are often poorly probed and interpreted. Here, the first HC-by-design case study in 2D is demonstrated that sequentially and linearly changes the HC quantity using functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The HC quantity and HC quality are analyzed using NanoDrop and label-free liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Cellular responses (uptake and cytotoxicity in J774 cell model) are compared using imaging cytometry and the modified lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. Cellular uptake linearly and solely correlates with HC quantity (R2 = 0.99634). The nanotoxicity, analyzed by retrospective design of experiment (DoE), is found to be dependent on the nanomaterial uptake (primary), HC composition (secondary), and nanomaterial exposure dose (tertiary). This unique 2D design eliminates the size–curvature–SSA multifactor interactions and can serve as a reliable screening platform to uncover HC-dependent bio–nano interactions to enable the next-generation quality-by-design (QbD) nanomedicines for better clinical translation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1802732
JournalAdvanced Materials
Volume30
Issue number40
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 4 2018

Keywords

  • click chemistry
  • drug delivery
  • graphene
  • nanomedicine
  • protein corona
  • toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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