The overall incidence of neonates with urinary cytomegalovirus (CMV) excretion was 0.9% of 954 tested. The incidence was twice as high in the lower as in the upper socioeconomic group (SEG). Mothers of infants with CMV infection in the lower SEG reported a greater number of chronic and gestational medical problems and showed a lower mean age than mothers of CMV-infected infants in the upper SEG. The mean age of mothers of CMV-infected infants was not significantly different from the respective control group in either upper or lower SEG. There was no impairment of immune responses in nine prospective or in two referred cases. Although eight of nine prospective cases might have been considered asymptomatic at birth, careful evaluation in the neonatal period showed significant growth inhibition in five, specific clinical changes in seven, and nonspecific clinical changes in all of the nine infants. Thus, 'asymptomatic' neonates may demonstrate effects of the infection during the neonatal period.
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