Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA)-derived machine learning fractional flow reserve CT (ML-FFRct) versus that of ischemia detected on single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on incident cardiovascular outcomes. Background: SPECT MPI and ML-FFRct are noninvasive tools that can assess the hemodynamic significance of coronary atherosclerotic disease. Methods: We studied a retrospective cohort of consecutive patients who underwent clinically indicated CCTA and SPECT MPI. ML-FFRct was computed using a ML prototype. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (D/MI), and the secondary outcome was D/MI and unplanned revascularization, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) occurring more than 90 days postimaging. Multiple nested multivariate cox regression was used to model a scenario wherein an initial anatomical assessment was followed by a functional assessment. Results: A total of 471 patients (mean age: 64 ± 13 year; 53% males) were included. Comorbidities were prevalent (78% hypertension, 66% diabetes, 81% dyslipidemia). ML-FFRct was <0.8 in at least 1 proximal/midsegment was present in 41.6% of patients, and ischemia on MPI was present in 13.8%. After a median follow-up of 18 months, 7% of patients (n = 33) experienced D/MI. On multivariate Cox proportional analysis, the presence of ischemia on MPI but not ML-FFRct significantly predicted D/MI (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.0; P = 0.047; or HR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.3-1.4; P = 0.306 respectively) when added to CCTA obstructive stenosis. Furthermore, the model with SPECT ischemia had higher global chi-square result and significantly improved reclassification. Results were similar using the secondary outcome and on several sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: In a high-risk patient cohort, SPECT MPI but not ML-FFRct adds independent and incremental prognostic information to CCTA-based anatomical assessment and clinical risk factors in predicting incident outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine