Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretroviral oral drugs is effective at preventing HIV transmission when individuals adhere to the dosing regimen. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a potent antiretroviral drug, with numerous long-acting (LA) delivery systems under development to improve PrEP adherence. However, none has undergone preventive efficacy assessment. Here we show that LA TAF using a novel subcutaneous nanofluidic implant (nTAF) confers partial protection from HIV transmission. We demonstrate that sustained subcutaneous delivery through nTAF in rhesus macaques maintained tenofovir diphosphate concentration at a median of 390.00 fmol/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 9 times above clinically protective levels. In a non-blinded, placebo-controlled rhesus macaque study with repeated low-dose rectal SHIVSF162P3 challenge, the nTAF cohort had a 62.50% reduction (95% CI: 1.72% to 85.69%; p=0.068) in risk of infection per exposure compared to the control. Our finding mirrors that of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy, where 60.00% protective efficacy was observed in macaques, and clinically, 67.00% reduction in risk with 86.00% preventive efficacy in individuals with detectable drug in the plasma. Overall, our nanofluidic technology shows potential as a subcutaneous delivery platform for long-term PrEP and provides insights for clinical implementation of LA TAF for HIV prevention.Competing Interest StatementStudy drugs were provided by Gilead Sciences. P.L.A. receives grants and contracts from Gilead Sciences paid to his institution and collects personal fees from Gilead Sciences. T.H. is an employee of Gilead Sciences. J.F.R. is an employee and stockholder of Gilead Sciences. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests.