Predictors of Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injection: A Multivariable Analysis Based on Injection Protocol and Povidone Iodine Strength

Maxwell S. Stem, Prethy Rao, Ivan J. Lee, Maria A. Woodward, Lisa J. Faia, Jeremy D. Wolfe, Antonio Capone, Douglas Covert, A. Bawa Dass, Kimberly A. Drenser, Bruce R. Garretson, Tarek S. Hassan, Alan Margherio, Kean T. Oh, Paul V. Raephaelian, Sandeep Randhawa, Scott Sneed, Michael T. Trese, Sunita Yedavally, George A. WilliamsAlan J. Ruby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Purpose: To determine the incidence of endophthalmitis after anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy at our institution and to identify potential risk factors for endophthalmitis occurring after injection. Design: Retrospective, single-center cohort study. Participants: All patients who received an intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF medication between January 1, 2014, and March 31, 2017. Methods: Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases billing codes were used to identify instances of anti-VEGF administration and cases of endophthalmitis. Medical records and injection technique were reviewed carefully in each case. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed in a stepwise fashion to determine independent predictors of endophthalmitis based on injection protocol. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of endophthalmitis after injection and odds of endophthalmitis by injection technique with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 154 198 anti-VEGF injections were performed during the period of interest, resulting in 58 cases of endophthalmitis (0.038% [1:2659]). After adjustment for confounders, both 2% lidocaine jelly (odds ratio [OR], 11.28; 95% CI, 3.39–37.46; P < 0.001) and 0.5% Tetravisc (Ocusoft, Richmond, TX; OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.15–13.50; P = 0.03) use were independent risk factors for endophthalmitis after injection. Lid speculum use, povidone iodine strength (5% vs. 10%), injection location (superior or inferior), conjunctival displacement, use of provider gloves, use of a strict no-talking policy, use of subconjunctival lidocaine, and topical antibiotic use were not statistically significant predictors of endophthalmitis after injection. There was no difference in endophthalmitis rate among the anti-VEGF agents (bevacizumab, ranibizumab 0.3 mg, ranibizumab 0.5 mg, and aflibercept). Conclusions: The incidence of endophthalmitis after anti-VEGF injections is low. Use of lidocaine jelly or Tetravisc may increase the risk of endophthalmitis after injection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-7
Number of pages5
JournalOphthalmology Retina
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Predictors of Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injection: A Multivariable Analysis Based on Injection Protocol and Povidone Iodine Strength'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this