Predicting optimal patient-specific postoperative facial landmarks for patients with craniomaxillofacial deformities

J. Lee, Daeseung Kim, X. Xu, T. Kuang, J. Gateno, P. Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Orthognathic surgery primarily corrects skeletal anomalies and malocclusion to enhance facial aesthetics, aiming for an improved facial appearance. However, this traditional skeletal-driven approach may result in undesirable residual asymmetry. To address this issue, a soft tissue-driven planning methodology has been proposed. This technique estimates bone movements based on the envisioned optimal facial appearance, thereby enhancing surgical accuracy and effectiveness. This study investigates the initial implementation phase of the soft tissue-driven approach, simulating the patient's ideal appearance by realigning distorted facial landmarks to an ideal state. The algorithm employs symmetrization and weighted optimization strategies, aligning projected optimal landmarks with standard cephalometric values for both facial symmetry and form, which are essential in orthognathic surgery for facial aesthetics. It also incorporates regularization to preserve the patient's facial characteristics. Validation through retrospective analysis of preoperative patients and normal subjects demonstrates this method's efficacy in achieving facial symmetry, particularly in the lower face, and promoting a natural, harmonious contour. Adhering to soft tissue-driven principles, this novel approach shows promise in surpassing traditional methods, potentially leading to enhanced facial outcomes and patient satisfaction in orthognathic surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Cephalometry
  • Craniofacial abnormalities
  • Dentofacial deformities
  • Facial asymmetry
  • Orthognathic surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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