Predict multicategory causes of death in lung cancer patients using clinicopathologic factors

Fei Deng, Haijun Zhou, Yong Lin, John A. Heim, Lanlan Shen, Yuan Li, Lanjing Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Random forests (RF) is a widely used machine-learning algorithm, and outperforms many other machine learning algorithms in prediction-accuracy. But it is rarely used for predicting causes of death (COD) in cancer patients. On the other hand, multicategory COD are difficult to classify in lung cancer patients, largely because they have multiple labels (versus binary labels). Methods: We tuned RF algorithms to classify 5-category COD among the lung cancer patients in the surveillance, epidemiology and end results-18, whose lung cancers were diagnosed in 2004, for the completeness in their follow-up. The patients were randomly divided into training and validation sets (1:1 and 4:1 sample-splits). We compared the prediction accuracy of the tuned RF and multinomial logistic regression (MLR) models. Results: We included 42,257 qualified lung cancers in the database. The COD were lung cancer (72.41%), other causes or alive (14.43%), non-lung cancer (6.85%), cardiovascular disease (5.35%), and infection (0.96%). The tuned RF model with 300 iterations and 10 variables outperformed the MLR model (accuracy = 69.8% vs 64.6%, 1:1 sample-split), while 4:1 sample-split produced lower prediction-accuracy than 1:1 sample-split. The top-10 important factors in the RF model were sex, chemotherapy status, age (65+ vs < 65 years), radiotherapy status, nodal status, T category, histology type and laterality, all of which except T category and laterality were also important in MLR model. Conclusion: We tuned RF models to predict 5-category CODs in lung cancer patients, and show RF outperforms MLR in prediction accuracy. We also identified the factors associated with these COD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104161
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Lung cancer
  • Machine learning
  • Multi-label classification
  • Multinomial logistic regression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications


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