Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana)

Joel N. Maslow, S. K. Mikota, M. Zhu, R. Isaza, L. R. Peddie, F. Dunker, J. Peddie, H. Riddle, C. A. Peloquin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

We recently described the clinical presentation and treatment of 18 elephants from six herds infected with TB. Treatment protocols and methods varied between herds to include both oral and rectal dosing using multiple drug doses and formulations. In this paper we present information regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) of isoniazid (INH) in elephants and provide suggestions regarding initial treatment regimens. Forty-one elephants received INH daily by either oral or rectal administration with different formulations. Population PK analysis was performed using Non-linear Mixed Effect Modeling (NONMEM). Results of oral administration indicated that compared with premixed INH solution, the drug exposure was highest with a suspension prepared freshly with INH powder. When INH was concomitantly given as an admixture over food, Tmax was delayed and variability in drug absorption was significantly increased. Compared with oral administration, similar drug exposures were found when INH was dosed rectally. The data generated suggest that a starting dose of 7.5 mg/kg of INH is appropriate for initial TB treatment in elephants when premixed solution is administered directly into the oropharynx or rectal vault and 4 mg/kg are when INH is administered following immediate suspension from powdered form.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-27
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • veterinary(all)

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