Polymeric nanoparticles enhance the sonodynamic activity of meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin in an in vitro neuroblastoma model

Roberto Canaparo, Greta Varchi, Marco Ballestri, Federica Foglietta, Giovanna Sotgiu, Andrea Guerrini, Andrea Francovich, Pierluigi Civera, Roberto Frairia, Loredana Serpe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Sonodynamic therapy is a developing noninvasive modality for cancer treatment, based on the selective activation of a sonosensitizer agent by acoustic cavitation. The activated sonosensitizer agent might generate reactive oxygen species leading to cancer cell death. We investigated the potential poly-methyl methacrylate core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TPPS) have to function as an innovative sonosensitizing system, ie, TPPS-NPs. Methods: Shockwaves (SWs) generated by a piezoelectric device were used to induce acoustic cavitation. The cytotoxic effect of the sonodynamic treatment with TPPS-NPs and SWs was investigated on the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. Cells were exposed for 12 hours to TPPS-NPs (100 μg/mL) and then to SWs (0.43 mJ/mm2 for 500 impulses, 4 impulses/second). Treatment with SWs, TPPS and NPs alone or in combination was carried out as control. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in SH-SY5Y cell proliferation after the sonodynamic treatment with TPPS-NPs and SWs. Indeed, there was a significant increase in necrotic (16.91% ± 3.89%) and apoptotic (27.45% ± 3.03%) cells at 48 hours. Moreover, a 15-fold increase in reactive oxygen species production for cells exposed to TPPS-NPs and SWs was observed at 1 hour compared with untreated cells. A statistically significant enhanced mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) expression of NRF2 (P<0.001) and a significant downregulation of TIGAR (P<0.05) and MAP3K5 (P<0.05) genes was observed in cells exposed to TPPS-NPs and SWs at 24 hours, along with a statistically significant release of cytochrome c (P<0.01) at 48 hours. Lastly, the sonosensitizing system was also investigated in an in vitro three-dimensional model, and the sonodynamic treatment significantly decreased the neuroblastoma spheroid growth. Conclusion: The sonosensitizing properties of TPPS were significantly enhanced once loaded onto NPs, thus enhancing the sonodynamic treatment's efficacy in an in vitro neuroblastoma model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4247-4263
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Volume8
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 6 2013

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Poly-methyl methacrylate nanoparticles
  • Shockwaves
  • Sonodynamic therapy
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry

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