Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) plays an important role in bladder tumorigenesis by regulating cell cycle. However, it remains unclear whether and how inhibition of PAI-1 suppresses bladder tumorigenesis. Methods: To elucidate the therapeutic effect of PAI-1 inhibition, we tested its tumorigenicity in PAI-1 knockout (KO) mice exposed to a known bladder carcinogen. Results: PAI-1 deficiency did not inhibit carcinogen-induced bladder cancer in mice although carcinogen-exposed wild type mice significantly increased PAI-1 levels in bladder tissue, plasma and urine. We found that PAI-1 KO mice exposed to carcinogen tended to upregulate protein C inhibitor (PAI-3), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type PA (tPA), and significantly increased PAI-2, suggesting a potential compensatory function of these molecules when PAI-1 is abrogated. Subsequent studies employing gene expression microarray using mouse bladder tissues followed by post hoc bioinformatics analysis and validation experiments by qPCR and IHC demonstrated that SERPING1 is further downregulated in PAI-1 KO mice exposed to BBN, suggesting that SERPING1 as a potential missing factor that regulate PAI-2 overexpression (compensation pathway). Conclusions: These results indicate that serpin compensation pathway, specifically PAI-2 overexpression in this model, supports bladder cancer development when oncoprotein PAI-1 is deleted. Further investigations into PAI-1 are necessary in order to identify true potential targets for bladder cancer therapy.
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) knockout mouse
- Serine protease inhibitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)