Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is potentially underrecognized by clinicians. Early recognition and subsequent optimal treatment of patients with ARDS may be facilitated by usage of biomarkers. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a marker of alveolar epithelial injury, has been proposed as a potentially useful biomarker for diagnosis of ARDS in a few studies. We tried to validate the performance of plasma SP-D levels for diagnosis of ARDS. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis using data from three (two in USA and one in Korea) prospective biobank cohorts involving 407 critically ill patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (ICU). A propensity score matched analysis (patients with versus without ARDS, matched 1:1) was carried out using significant variables from multiple logistic regression. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma SP-D as a diagnostic marker of ARDS was assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Out of the 407 subjects included in this study, 39 (10%) patients fulfilled ARDS criteria. Patients with ARDS had higher SP-D levels in plasma (p < 0.01) and higher hospital-mortality (p < 0.001) than those without ARDS. Thirty eight subjects with ARDS (cases) were successfully matched for propensity for ARDS with 38 subjects without ARDS (controls). Plasma levels of SP-D were higher in cases with ARDS compared to their matched controls without ARDS [median 20.8 ng/mL (interquartile range, 12.7-38.4) versus 7.9 (4.1-17.0); p = 0.001]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SP-D for the diagnosis of ARDS was 0.71 (95% confidence intervals, 0.60-0.83). A cut-off point of 12.7 ng/mL for SP-D yielded sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 63%. Conclusions: High levels of SP-D within 48 h after ICU admission might serve as a diagnostic marker for ARDS in patients hospitalized in medical ICU. Further prospective trials are required to validate the diagnostic role of SP-D in ARDS, and if its usefulness is greater in direct than in indirect ARDS, as well as across different strata of severity of ARDS.
- Acute lung injury
- Critical illness
- Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein D
- Respiratory distress syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine