Phase-shift, stimuli-responsive drug carriers for targeted delivery

Brian E. O'Neill, Natalya Rapoport

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


The intersection of particles and directed energy is a rich source of novel and useful technology that is only recently being realized for medicine. One of the most promising applications is directed drug delivery. This review focuses on phase-shift nanoparticles (that is, particles of submicron size) as well as micron-scale particles whose action depends on an external-energy triggered, first-order phase shift from a liquid to gas state of either the particle itself or of the surrounding medium. These particles have tremendous potential for actively disrupting their environment for altering transport properties and unloading drugs. This review covers in detail ultrasound and laser-activated phase-shift nano- and micro-particles and their use in drug delivery. Phase-shift based drug-delivery mechanisms and competing technologies are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1165-1187
Number of pages23
JournalTherapeutic Delivery
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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