Pharmacotherapies for lipid modification: Beyond the statins

Antonio M. Gotto, Jennifer E. Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


The widespread clinical use of statins has contributed to significant reductions in the rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over the past 3 decades, and statins are considered first-line therapy for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Nevertheless, various other lipid-lowering agents can provide clinical benefit by supplementing or augmenting statin therapy in patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia, or by providing an alternative for patients who are intolerant to statins. Bile acid resins and niacin were prescribed for lipid modification for years before the introduction of the statins, and new data continue to emerge regarding their use in different patient groups and for specific conditions. Ezetimibe can be appropriate for patients whose primary lipid abnormality is an elevated LDL-cholesterol level, whereas the fibrates seem to be most beneficial in patients with low levels of HDL cholesterol and elevated triglycerides. At the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013, the first microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, lomitapide, and the first antisense therapy to target apolipoprotein B, mipomersen, were approved for the treatment of individuals with extremely elevated LDL-cholesterol levels caused by homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Although two agents in the experimental class of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have failed to show a benefit in clinical trials, newer drugs in this class could provide an additional strategy to address residual cardiovascular risk in patients treated with statins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)560-570
Number of pages11
JournalNature Reviews Cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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