OBJECTIVE: We examined long-term outcomes of patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) who underwent different percutaneous interventions at the discretion of individual operators: balloon angioplasty (BA), repeat stent or rotational atherectomy (RA). We also examined long-term outcomes of patients with ISR who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). BACKGROUND: In-stent restenosis remains a challenging problem, and its optimal management is still unknown. METHODS: Symptomatic patients (n = 510) with ISR were identified using cardiac catheterization laboratory data. Management for ISR included BA (169 patients), repeat stenting (117 patients), RA (107 patients) or CABG (117 patients). Clinical outcome events of interest included death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization (TVR) and a combined end point of these major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Mean follow-up was 19 ± 12 months (range = 6 to 61 months). RESULTS: Patients with ISR treated with repeat stent had significantly larger average post-procedure minimal lumen diameter compared with BA or RA (3.3 ± 0.4 mm vs. 3.0 ± 0.4 vs. 2.9 ± 0.5, respectively, p < 0.05). Incidence of TVR and MACE were similar in the BA, stent and RA groups (39%, 40%, 33% for TVR and 43%, 40%, 33% for MACE, p = NS). Patients with diabetes who underwent RA had similar outcomes as patients without diabetes, while patients with diabetes who underwent BA or stent had worse outcomes than patients without diabetes. Patients who underwent CABG for ISR, mainly because of the presence of multivessel disease, had significantly better outcomes than any percutaneous treatment (8% for TVR and 23% for MACE). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients with ISR and in the subset of patients without diabetes, long-term outcomes were similar in the BA, repeat stent and RA groups. Tissue debulking with RA yielded better results only in diabetic patients. Bypass surgery for patients with multivessel disease and ISR provided the best outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine