PCSK9 and inflammation: A review of experimental and clinical evidence

Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Sarvenaz Sabouri-Rad, Antonio M. Gotto, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach, Zuhier Awan, George E. Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is now identified as an important and major player in hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis pathophysiology. PCSK9, through promoting lysosomal degradation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, can decrease the clearance of plasma LDLs, leading to hypercholesterolaemia and consequent atherosclerotic plaque formation. Hypercholesterolaemia has been found to promote systemic and vascular inflammation, which can cause atherosclerotic lesion formation and progression and subsequent incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown the involvement of PCSK9 in the inflammatory pathway of atherosclerosis. Although trials with PCSK9 inhibitors have not shown any alteration in plasma C-reactive protein levels, there is accumulating evidence showing lessened inflammatory response in the arterial wall that could attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development beyond the established LDL-lowering effect of PCSK9 inhibition. In this review, we represent mounting evidence indicating that PCSK9 can locally increase vascular inflammation and contribute to atherosclerotic plaque progression in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-245
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Inflammation
  • LDL-C
  • LDLR
  • PCSK9

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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