2 Scopus citations


Uveal melanoma (UM) arises from the dendritic melanocytes in the choroid, ciliary body, or iris. UM is different from skin melanoma and not related to BRAF mutations but to GNAQ initiation mutations; it has an exquisite predilection for metastasizing to the liver via hematogenous spread, and it arises in an immune privilege site. Pathologic characteristics of UM with unfavorable prognosis for metastasis include large tumor volume (reflected in the AJCC staging), epithelioid melanoma as a predominant cellularity (spindle-, epithelioid-, or mixed-cell types), ciliary body location, diffuse-type tumor, ring melanoma of the iris, presence of vascular mimickers, and extraocular extension. Molecular prognostication for metastasis relies on testing the tumor cells. Cytologic evaluation of fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) submitted during brachytherapy implantation is a safeguard against submitting cells other than tumor for molecular and assurance for quality of the sample.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUveal Melanoma
Subtitle of host publicationBiology and Management
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9783030781170
ISBN (Print)9783030781163
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • Epithelioid melanoma
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy
  • Histopathologic risk factors
  • Staging
  • Vascular mimickers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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